## 28 February 2008

### Convolution and Decimation in the C Language

If you are working with DSP systems, or learning about them, you are going to want to know how to use filters to shape and select the signals you work with. For example, you might know that in order to only pass low frequency signals, you create an ideal low-pass filter (which is a square wave), and multiply that by the corresponding frequency spectrum of the input signal. Simple enough, but how does this actually translate to embedded systems?

You are most likely going to be doing convolution. You probably already know about the relationship between convolution in the time-domain, and multiplication in the frequency-domain. And if you are like me, the concept of convolution is much more abstract than multiplying, so the task of convolving two signals on a DSP seems daunting at first. It turns out it's not that bad, let's take a look at a quick example with two square waves. You can easily replace the two square waves with real life signals. Click the image to see the following code:

Let's look at the top-half of the code. The arrays signal_x, and filter_h correspond to the signal to be filtered and the filter respectively. And the array result_y will hold the result of the convolution. Note that the size of the results array will need to be large enough to hold the combination of the sizes of signal_x and filter_h.

Next the signal_x values are generated on the fly to be a large square wave, obviously this is specific to this example and signal_x will be different in the real world. Then the convolution is performed using the appropriate arrays. The 'for' loop will increment from 0 to the size of the input array minus the size of the filter array. This is because if you let it proceed further, the fetched value for signal_x within the accumulation loop will be trash. As you can see, the so-called accumulation 'for' loop simply multiplies signal_x and filter_h from the current location through to the end of the filter taps. After the accumulation the result is stored in result_y. Remember that normally you would 'flip' one of the signals before convolving them, but since the filter is symmetrical you can ignore that step. Figures of signal_x, filter_h, and the resulting convolution are shown below (using GNU Octave):

Note the 4th figure talks about decimation. The last half of the example code demonstrates another useful technique in DSP and that is reducing the sampling rate of some signal by using decimation. The most important thing to remember about decimation is that you need to filter it before hand to avoid aliasing. As you may have guessed, this code is really more related to decimation than convolution if you replace filter_h with some anti-aliasing filter. The code is identical except for two important points; one is that now you are incrementing the index by the decimation factor. It's that simple. But, you need to leave the accumulation loop incrementing by 1 though so you are filtering using useful information. The second important point isn't shown but it is that your results array, here result_y, can be reduced in size when you allocate it beforehand. It's a waste to filter a signal and store it in some array A with size X and then decimate it in another loop and save it in another array B with size X/2? Obviously this code is a great space saver, and can be done because by definition decimation is throwing away output data.

That's it! I hope this has helped you understand implementing convolution and decimation a little better.